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By S. Kent. University of Nevada, Reno. 2018.

For example cheap 20mg apcalis sx with visa, the polymath Adelard of Bath and several English or Anglo- Norman physicians are known to have studied in Salerno purchase 20 mg apcalis sx; some Salernitan physicians also emigrated to England order apcalis sx 20 mg without a prescription. Moreover apcalis sx 20mg without prescription, some of the earliest extant manuscripts of Con- stantinian and Salernitan writings come from England cheap 20mg apcalis sx with mastercard. Burnett, The Introduction of Arabic Learning into England, Panizzi Lectures,  (London: British Library, ), pp. On the specific significance of this English connection to Treatments of Women, see below. The definitive studyof the institutional historyof the school remains Paul Oskar Kristeller, ‘‘The School of Salerno: Its Development and Its Contribution to the His- tory of Learning,’’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine  (): –; reprinted in Ital- ian translation with further revisions as Studi sulla Scuola medica Salernitana (Naples: Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici, ). See also Vivian Nutton, ‘‘Velia and the School of Salerno,’’ Medical History  (): –; and ‘‘Continuity or Rediscovery: The City Physician in Classical Antiquity and Mediaeval Italy,’’ in The Town and State Physician in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, ed. My thanks to Francis Newton for informing me of his findings on the early date of Alfanus’s translation of Nemesius (personal communication, June ). His reli- gion of birth is of less import for this story than his native language. On Constantine and his oeuvre, see Bloch, Monte Cassino, : –, –, and : –; and most recently the essays in Constantine the African and ‘Alī ibn al- ‘Abbās al-Magˇūsī: The ‘‘Pantegni’’ and Related Texts, ed. On the intellectual culture of Monte Cassino, see Newton, Scriptorium and Library. Green, ‘‘Constantinus Africanus and the Con- flict Between Religion and Science,’’ in The Human Embryo: Aristotle and the Arabic  Notes to Pages – and European Traditions, ed. Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages: The ‘‘Viaticum’’ and Its Commen- taries (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, ); Gerrit Bos, ‘‘Ibn al-Jazzār on Women’s Diseases and Their Treatment,’’ Medical History  (): –; and idem, Ibn al-Jazzār on Sexual Diseases and Their Treatment, Sir Henry Wellcome Asian Series (London: Kegan Paul, ). Jordan, ‘‘Medicine as Science in the Early Commentaries on ‘Johan- nitius,’ ’’ Traditio  (): –; idem, ‘‘The Construction of a Philosophical Medi- cine: Exegesis and Argument in Salernitan Teaching on the Soul,’’ Osiris,dser. By the third quarter of the twelfth century, Galen’s Ars medendi was added to the collection as well. Brian Lawn, The Salernitan Questions: An Introduction to the History of Medieval and Renaissance Problem Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, ); The Prose Salerni- tan Questions (London: British Academy/Oxford University Press, ). See George Washington Corner, Anatomical Texts of the Earlier Middle Ages (Washington, D. Tips on practitioner-patient relations did not always conform to the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath. In discussing sanious flux from the womb, Master Salernus bru- tally observes, ‘‘Sometimes it happens that after their cure patients remain ungrateful toward the physician. Therefore, let them be given cut alum with any kind of cooked food so that they are afflicted once again. For if alum is taken, a lesion will necessarily be generated in some part of the body and they will fall sick again’’ (Catholica Magistri Salerni,inMagistri Salernitani nondum editi, ed. Dietlinde Goltz, Mittelalterliche Pharmazie und Medizin (Stuttgart: Wissen- schaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, ), pp. Besides the gynecological sections of the works just mentioned, the only other gynecological materials of Salernitan origin that I have discovered arewhat seems to be an excerpt from an unidentified Practica, a brief tract on infertility, and a collection of recipes drawn from a varietyof sources. Green, Women’s Healthcare in the Medieval West: Texts and Contexts (Aldershot: Ashgate, ), pp. All these anatomical descriptions derive largely from Constantine’s Pantegni and the pseudo-Galenic De spermate; see Corner, Anatomical Texts, pp. For further discussion of female anatomy, see Danielle Jacquart and Claude Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages, trans. Matthew Adam- Notes to Pages –  son (Cambridge: Polity Press; Princeton: Princeton University Press, ); and Joan Cadden, Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ). The only references to physicians in traditional Lombard laws were stipulations that perpetrators of violent crimes were responsible for finding, and paying for, physi- cians for their victims. Green, ‘‘The De genecia Attributed to Constantine the African,’’ Speculum  (): –. Green, ‘‘The TransmissionofAncientTheoriesof FemalePhysiologyandDiseaseThroughtheEarly Middle Ages’’ (Ph.

This rate is even higher among people with serious mental illness buy apcalis sx 20 mg low cost, with data showing that 67 purchase apcalis sx 20mg otc. Unlike the declining smoking rate for people without a mental illness 20mg apcalis sx fast delivery, smoking 60 rates for people with mental illness have not substantially changed in the last 12 years order apcalis sx 20 mg with amex. Best practice approaches to addressing the needs of people with mental illness include: • Implement smoke-free policies in mental health services • Routine assessment of alcohol proven apcalis sx 20 mg, tobacco and other drug use when someone presents with a mental illness • Routine inquiry around mental illness or psychological distress when someone presents with alcohol, tobacco and other drug use • Management and treatment approach based around readiness for change • Client management should aim to increase the awareness of the relationship and effect the alcohol, tobacco and other drug use and mental illness have on each other • Approaches designed to address specific co-morbid mental illnesses and with specific cohorts where the evidence base is established. Rates of risky 61 behaviours are generally higher among young people than the broader population. Some drug use has higher prevalence among young people and associated harm can be reduced by delaying initiation. National Drug Strategy 2016-2025 27 Best practice approaches to addressing the needs of young people include: • Regulation of alcohol and tobacco retailers • Zero blood alcohol concentration requirements on novice drivers • Family interventions • Tailored services • Connections to services • School programs and curriculum • Restrictions on access • Price • Promotional restrictions • Tailored public education 6. Older people can be more susceptible to the harms arising from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use as a result of pain and medication management, isolation, poor health, grief/loss/life events and loss of independent living. Best practice approaches to addressing the needs of older people include: • Early identification of issues in primary care settings • Maintenance of social connections • Promotion of community inclusion, positive environments and full and active lives • Age appropriate treatment components • Longer treatments • Physically accessible services (hand rails, appropriate seating, transport etc) • Outreach and home visits • Workforce development to enable care for more complex co-morbidities. In 2012 half of all prison entrants reported using cannabis prior to entering prison and more than one-third (37%) reported using methamphetamines. Between 50- 90% of people who inject drugs have spent time in prison and 34% continue to inject while 62 incarcerated. For those injecting drugs in prison, 90% report sharing needles/injecting equipment. Best practice approaches to addressing the needs of people in contact with the criminal justice system include: • Implement smoke-free policies in correctional facilities. National Drug Strategy 2016-2025 28 • Improve the capability, capacity and confidence of the workforce to work with people who have a range of complex needs • Access to education, health promotion, treatment and support services while in prison and during their transition back into the community • Provision of a range of treatments, including detoxification and withdrawal management, pharmacotherapy, drug free units or therapeutic communities • Testing, education and treatment for blood borne viruses • Restorative justice conferencing • Strengthen existing harm reduction efforts in prison settings, such as opioid substitution therapy, and to support inmates to adopt safe behaviours and assist inmates connect with health and social services post-release • Aftercare and support post release • Drug detection units and searching of offenders, staff, visitors, vehicles. For example, some members of new migrant populations from countries where alcohol is not commonly used may be at greater risk when they come into contact with Australia’s more liberal drinking culture. Some types of drugs specific to cultural groups, such as kava and khat, can also contribute to problems in the Australian setting and some individuals may have experienced torture, trauma, grief and loss, making them vulnerable to harmful use of drugs. In 2013, use of licit and illicit drugs was more common in people who identified as homosexual or bisexual in Australia than for those 68 identifying as heterosexual. However, priority drug types change over time and differ due to local circumstances. In addition to these priority drug types, jurisdictions should be aware of emerging trends or drugs with concentrated use in specific communities. These include image enhancing drugs (steroids) and volatiles (fuel, paint and aerosols). Poly-drug use is also a significant concern and strategies that address this can be very effective at reducing harm. Tobacco smoking also carries the highest burden of drug-related costs on the Australian 73 community. Australia’s implementation of a range of multifaceted tobacco control measures has been effective in reducing smoking rates over recent decades, with daily smoking for those aged 14 years or older declining in Australia from 24. Smokers are also having fewer cigarettes 74 per week (96 in 2013 compared to 111 in 2010). Challenges remain for tobacco, including addressing the inequality in smoking rates between some disadvantaged populations and the broader community. In addition, it is important to maintain low smoking rates and expand smoke-free areas to protect people from second hand smoke. Responding to the introduction of e-cigarettes is also a matter currently faced by Australian jurisdictions. In 2010, the cost of alcohol-related harm (including harm to others) was reported to be $36 billion. Alcohol is also 77 associated with 3,000 deaths and 65,000 hospitalisations every year. The costs of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug abuse to Australian society in 2004/05. National Drug Strategy 2016-2025 31 While the burden of alcohol harms in the community remains high, some gains have been made. The proportion of people aged 14 or older who consumed alcohol daily declined between 2004 (8.

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Even if one of these pathways a continuing role for individually based the timing of our dying order apcalis sx 20 mg visa. Barnard D (1988) Love and death: Existential dimensions of physicians’ difficulties with disease will reappear in a different not to be exacerbated 20mg apcalis sx for sale. Abbasi K discount 20 mg apcalis sx with visa, Smith R (2003) No more free intervention is situated cheap apcalis sx 20 mg on line, the less likely disease 20 mg apcalis sx visa, less remediable than poverty lunches. J, Koskela K (1982) Theory and action for guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention 12. Freemantle N, Hill S (2002) Medicalisation, best strategy for reducing deaths from heart 14. Schwartz☯ so normal experiences get labeled The Case of Restless Legs as pathologic, and by expanding the Syndrome definition of disease to include earlier, To get a sense of how the media works milder, and presymptomatic forms in the context of a major disease (e. Discussions about disease In 2003, GlaxoSmithKline launched a mongering usually focus on the role of campaign to promote awareness about pharmaceutical companies—how they restless legs syndrome, beginning with “[Restless legs syndrome] is quite a serious sleep promote disease and their products press releases about presentations at disorder that affects a lot of people Their sleep is through “disease awareness” campaigns the American Academy of Neurology disturbed and, unless they are really awake, they and direct-to-consumer drug will not be aware of it” [1]. Sometimes you previously approved for Parkinson promoted in another way: through feel sad or distracted or anxious. Does it mean you release entitled “New survey reveals approach stories about new diseases need medication? For some people, disorder—restless legs syndrome—is mongering by the pharmaceutical symptoms are severe enough to be keeping Americans awake at night” industry, pharmaceutical consultants, disabling. But for many others with and advocacy groups, journalists, too, milder problems, these “symptoms” may end up selling sickness. The side effects that overwhelm any • An urge to move the legs due to an authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Typically, the disease is vague, • Symptoms that occur primarily at night public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, with nonspecific symptoms spanning distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or a broad spectrum of severity—from and that can interfere with sleep or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. Schwartz are at the Veterans Affairs Outcomes Group, White River treatment gets enlarged in two ways: can range from less than once a month Junction, Vermont, United States of America, and the by narrowing the definition of health to many times a day. Recommended Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences, Dartmouth treatments include stretching exercises Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America. Key Elements of Disease Mongering and How the Media Could Do Better Key Elements of Disease Mongering When the Media Can Get Co-opted Suggestions for Doing Better Exaggerate the prevalence of disease Create a broad disease definition based on Uncritically accepts disease definition. Learn exact definition of disease and question whether it is appropriately vague and prevalent symptoms. Determine whether the prevalence estimate is credible: Are the “gold standard” diagnostic criteria being used as designed? Blur the distinction between mild and severe Highlights the important physical, social, and Be clear about the spectrum of disease. Encourage more diagnosis Highlight that doctors fail to recognize Quotes an “expert” about how doctors miss the Acknowledge the problems of overdiagnosis (e. Suggest that all disease should be treated Exaggerate the benefits of the drug for Overstates the benefit by providing only Objectively report benefit by quantifying how well the drug works (e. Overstates the benefit by quoting a strong claim Learn and state industry ties of researchers who make strong claims of benefit from researchers with strong industry about a drug’s benefit. Imply that there is no downside to Minimizes the harms by not mentioning the Quantify side effects (e. Imply that long- term treatment is safe and Ignores concerns about duration of clinical trials Caution readers that although treatment is generally long term, the effective. Since then, the and articles with only passing mention often included elements exaggerating restless legs campaign has developed of restless legs (most of these were disease prevalence. Only one article into a multimillion dollar international about sleep disorders, another “new questioned the disease definition at all effort to “push restless legs syndrome yet largely unrecognized problem”). Radio show host Rush Limbaugh, Restless Legs Syndrome disease mongering, as outlined in the for example, has mocked it as a To identify media coverage related first column of Table 1: exaggerating pseudoillness” [10]). This is the most common disorder your doctor has never heard of” [17]) and underrecognized by patients (“…many people can suffer in silence for years before it is recognized” [18]). One-quarter of articles encouraged patient self-diagnosis and suggested people ask their doctor whether restless legs might explain various problems (including insomnia, daytime fatigue, attention deficit disorder in children, and depression). One-fifth of articles referred readers to the “nonprofit” Restless Legs Foundation for further information; none reported that the foundation is heavily subsidized by GlaxoSmithKline.

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